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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. This study examines the association between DRV victimization and socio-demographic characteristics, sexual identity and dating and relationship behaviours among 16—19 year olds FE students.
Cross-sectional self-report data were collected from students aged 16—19 at six FE settings in England and Wales. Factor analysis examined the structure of DRV victimization by gender. Multilevel logistic regression examined the odds ratios of DRV victimization according to socio-demographics, sexual identity and dating behaviours. DRV victimization clusters into two for females, and three for males. Among females, The odds of DRV victimization were 2—8 times greater for males and 2—4 times greater for females who had ever sent a sexually explicit image.
No consistent association was found between DRV and age, spending money per week, educational attainment or meeting partners online. The high prevalence, absence of gender differences and social patterning, suggests DRV victimization may be becoming normalized and is of ificant public health importance for young people in England and Wales.
Dating and relationship violence DRV encompasses threats, emotional abuse, coercion and controlling behaviours, physical violence, and coerced, non-consensual or abusive sexual activities perpetrated by a current or former casual or steady partner.
Early DRV victimization is associated with substance misuse, sexually transmitted infections STIs and teenage pregnancy 8 eating disorders, mental health problems, anti-social behaviour 9 and violence in adulthood. Evidence of associations between socio-demographic factors and adolescent DRV victimization is equivocal, with most studies undertaken in North America.
A review of 61 studies reported lower socio-economic status SES was associated with an increased risk for DRV victimization.
The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health reports that adolescents with same-sex partners have rates of DRV that are lower or equal to rates reported by adolescents with opposite-sex partners, 19 whereas other longitudinal US 20 and cross-sectional UK studies report higher victimization rates in same-sex compared to heterosexual adolescents. The prevalence of meeting partners online and sharing of sexually explicit images in young people has received relatively little empirical attention.
Despite young people being the largest users of mobile phone technology and social media 27 and adolescence being a key stage in the life course where norms of sexual activity are established, young people engage in sexual risk taking and develop independence and autonomy, there have been few studies examining the association between sending sexually explicit images and DRV among 16—19 year olds in the UK. Although DRV is more widely recognized and researched within the US, it is still largely under-studied in the UK, especially among young people.
To establish a suitable measure of DRV, this article considers the prevalence of different forms of DRV within a relationship, together with the severity and frequency of these behaviours, relative to young people in England and Wales. In this context, less severe behaviours occurring only once may not be considered to constitute DRV whereas other, more serious behaviours happening even once may be sufficient to warrant DRV classification. In England, the age at which most young people leave education has been raised to 18 years.
Further Education FE settings are educational settings that primarily serve 16—19 year olds. There are now more than 1. They are environments where young people are socialized into gender norms and where ificant amounts of gender-based harassment and DRV go unchallenged. Comprehensive sexual health interventions in US high schools show promising but they have not been developed for use in UK FE settings.
The evidence is mixed as to whether certain socio-demographic characteristics and dating and relationship behaviours are associated with more experience of DRV. This article provides the first comprehensive estimate of the distribution of dating and relationship violence and of risk and variation of DRV according to socio-demographic and behavioural factors with a large sample of FE students in England and Wales. Establishing the association between socio-demographic, contextual and behavioural characteristics with DRV will help to inform whether universal or targeted interventions are appropriate.
What is the association between DRV victimization and socio-demographic characteristics, sexual identity, and dating and relationship behaviours for 16—19 year olds in FE settings?
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Multiple modes of recruitment were used to invite all students aged 16—19 to participate. Information about the study and a weblink to the electronic e -questionnaire were ed to all students using their institutional where possible. Students also completed questionnaires during scheduled lesson time using electronic tablets.
Trained fieldworkers attended each data collection session. Participants were aged 16 or over and, based on college guidance, deemed as having full capacity to provide informed consent. Students had the opportunity to withdraw from the data collection session at any time, and were given contact details for organizations providing relevant information and support following completion of the questionnaire. Data were collected from students aged 16— Of those participating, These were used in all subsequent analyses.
The sample consisted of mostly White British Approximately two-thirds of the sample reported studying on a non-academic educational pathway. Participants self-reported their age, gender, sexual identity and ethnicity. Independent living was assessed by asking whether participants lived with a parent or other adult guardian.
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Participants who reported dating or relationship experience were asked nine questions relating to whether they had experienced different types of DRV; controlling behaviours, verbal abuse, online sexual violence relating to sending sexually explicit images, and physical violence see Online Resource 1. The questions, adapted from Barter et al. Dating and relationship items were categorized and coded into binary variables to for the severity and frequency of behaviours, with some questions not considered DRV if they had only occurred once Online Resource 1.
Exploratory factor analysis EFA was used to explore the underlying latent structure and relationships between the nine DRV items. EFAs were conducted separately for males and females due to the differing nature of DRV among genders. These DRV variables were then used as outcomes in multilevel logistic regression models ing for college-level clustering to examine the association between socio-demographic characteristics, sending explicit images, meeting partners online and different types of DRV victimization.
Unadjusted models were estimated followed by adding all items into a fully adjusted model.
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Overall, Nearly half The odds of experiencing online sexual violence were higher for younger, BME males and of experiencing threatening behaviour were higher for younger males. For females, the odds of experiencing controlling behaviour were lower for BME groups or those with less money to spend each week. The odds of experiencing any form of DRV were higher for females who lived independently and those reporting non-heterosexual identity.
Statistically ificant differences appear in bold italic text. AOR: adjusted for age, spending money per week, ethnicity, educational pathway, educational attainment, living independently, sexual identity, experience of meeting partners online, ever sent sexually explicit image. In 16—19 year olds attending FE settings The most common form of DRV victimization was controlling behaviours, experienced by more than one-third of all young people with dating or relationship experience. Up to a third of males and females had experienced verbal DRV.
The odds of experiencing a form of DRV were between 2—8 times greater for males and 2—4 greater for females who had ever sent a sexually explicit image of themselves, but DRV was not associated with meeting partners online. It separates physical, sexual and psychological or emotional violence. In line with literature, controlling behaviours were the most common form of DRV for both genders. The high prevalence of DRV, especially controlling behaviours, may relate to the high prevalence of smartphone use among this population. It could also reflect changing norms around sharing and monitoring public information online, the normalization of controlling behaviours or an increased willingness to report these behaviours.
Images used as a form of currency can increase the risk of technology-assisted DRV including blackmail, revenge porn 4344 or wider cybervictimization. The odds of experiencing DRV were higher for females who lived independently.
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Young people in same-sex relationships may experience unique homophobic stigma, violence and limited social support which may compound typical relationship difficulties, contributing to increased victimization. The high prevalence of DRV coupled with a lack of differences across various socio-demographic characteristics suggests that DRV may be becoming normalized in 16—19 year olds and that universal intervention may be appropriate.
Adolescence is a key period where norms are established and dating and relationship violence begins to manifest. Despite efforts to collect data in contrasting FE settings, the cross-sectional, non-random sample is not nationally representative Similarly, as lifetime DRV was measured; those with multiple relationships would have higher opportunity to report multiple incidents.
While every effort was made to ensure that participants completed questionnaires anonymously, individually and confidentially participants may have been unwilling to disclose DRV such that prevalence may be underestimated. Variation in the definitions used to measure DRV provides additional challenges when collecting data and comparing research in this area. Sending sexually explicit images was also measured without relational context. As a cross-sectional study, associations may reflect reverse causality. For instance, sending explicit images may precede DRV. We would like to thank the FE college staff and students for their time and contribution to the project, and members of our stakeholder advisory group for their guidance throughout the project.
We would also like Langford SD sex dating thank Professor Chris Taylor for his help with the final manuscript. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Public Health Oxf. Published online Nov Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. Address correspondence to Honor Young, E-mail: ku.
Received Jul 19; Revised Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Supplementary Data. Methods Cross-sectional self-report data were collected from students aged 16—19 at six FE settings in England and Wales. Conclusions The high prevalence, absence of gender differences and social patterning, suggests DRV victimization may be becoming normalized and is of ificant public health importance for young people in England and Wales.
Keywords: young people, educational settings, violence. Participants Data were collected from students aged 16— Table 1 Sample characteristics and prevalence of dating and relationship violence. Open in a separate window.