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It is also vitally important to reveal how critical feminist texts that were not originally created to analyze intersecting identity politics can provide a better understanding of people with multiple marginalized identities. These relationships support the assertion that these powers were institutionalized by similar people and forces. While heterosexuality is intrinsically tied to masculinity, masculinity is also intrinsically tied to Black male identity.

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. In this special section, we have compiled a diverse array of empirical and theoretical perspectives on Black and Latino male bisexualities. A wide range of information on the individual, social, and sexual lives of these men, and potential relations to risk behavior, are presented. This article introduces this new body of work and offers suggestions for future research directions for culturally appropriate interventions for Black and Latino bisexual men.

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Men with wives and girlfriends secretly having sex with other men. Even nearly 10 years earlier, author E. Few could have anticipated, however, the impact a single episode of Oprah could have on sexual culture in the United States and beyond.

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Such a sensational and well-researched story, endorsed by a popular culture deity like Winfrey indeed, a link to purchase the book may still be found on her websitewas bound to sell. In the late s, the term was heard in rhythm and blues songs as an indicator of male infidelity e. As opposed to media depictions from recent decades, however, this time bisexuality was not exposed as a glamorous trend among pop stars and supermodels.

Also, research on Black male bisexuality and its associations with HIV transmission has not yet adequately described the complexity of these men's sexual behaviors and associated risks, for themselves and their partners. Interestingly, classical studies of bisexuality in the United States focused heavily on White men and women. This has resulted in renewed demonization not only of bisexuality but of Black male sexuality cf. Research focusing specifically on Latino bisexual men, broadly understood here as men of Latin American descent who live in the United States, is somewhat more developed than research on Discrete black man bisexual men.

Even prior to the HIV epidemic, a body of research on bisexual behavior among Latino men emerged from social scientists working within Latin America and the Caribbean. Ethnographic studies have shown that Latin American bisexual men face unique issues in the construction, expression, and experience of their sexualities Aggleton, De Moya and Garcia found similar relationships between masculinity and bisexuality in the Dominican Republic. Some researchers attempted to transpose new labels onto Latino bisexual men in the United States with little theoretical basis.

This typology reflects a stereotypical representation of particular sexual behaviors and does not for any of the complexities of Latino male bisexuality and potential relationships between ethnicity and sexuality. It is for these reasons that we have attempted to critically re-examine Black and Latino male bisexuality in this special section of Archives of Sexual Behavior.

While bisexuality itself has been given scant attention in the scientific literature, Black and Latino male bisexuality deserves special attention. The recent Down Low dialogue has elicited many questions. Knowledge on ethnic minority male bisexuality is primarily anecdotal.

While myths are spreading, perhaps with greater speed and voracity than HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, a scientific understanding of ethnic minority male bisexuality has lagged. In this special section, we have given special attention from public health and theoretical perspectives.

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research focusing on the non-heterosexual practices of Black and Latino men has already established several tenants. First of all, the prevalence of bisexuality has been found to be considerably higher among these men in comparison to their White counterparts. Black men in these samples were more likely to view bisexual behavior as normative despite their strong feelings that same-sex behaviors were not tolerated within their communities.

Black feminist consciousness for black men and boys

Scientific information regarding the social, sexual, and risk factors associated with relatively common bisexuality among ethnic minority men has been slow to develop. This discrepancy between behavior and identity was convincingly illustrated by findings from research carried out in New York City that received a ificant amount of media coverage. The straight-identified MSM were also much more likely to be married. Black and Latino bisexual men have also been found to be less likely to disclose their same-sex behaviors, particularly to female partners.

Several reasons have been mentioned for the ethnicity-related discrepancy between identity and behavior and the limited Discrete black man. Added to this is the racism that ethnic minority men report to experience in the gay community see, e. Another reason is the idea that one would have to play down or give up one's ethnic background, including the social support coming from one's ethnic community; one's ethnic community and the gay community are rarely compatible.

A third, crucial factor is the strong lack of acceptance of bisexuality and homosexuality in Black communities that several researchers have noted e. The actual picture seems to be more complicated. Using responses from almost 7, Blacks and 43, thousand Whites in 31 surveys conducted sinceLewis demonstrated that despite greater disapproval of homosexuality among Black persons. Blacks' opinions on sodomy laws, gay civil liberties, and employment discrimination were quite similar to Whites' opinions.

Blacks are actually more likely to support laws prohibiting antigay discrimination. Controlling for religious and educational differences, Lewis found that Blacks remain more disapproving of homosexuality but were moderately more supportive of gay civil liberties and markedly more opposed to antigay employment discrimination than were Whites.

It is likely that the strong association between masculinity and heterosexuality makes it difficult for ethnic minority men to openly explore same-sex sexual desires and develop a bisexual or homosexual identity. The strong association between masculinity and heterosexuality in Black and Latino ethnic minorities should not be understood as an essential link, because they cannot be seen independently from the social position of ethnic minorities Malebranche, This situation has begun to spark the public health interest in the United States in ethnic male bisexuality.

Odds for Latino men are similarly elevated. Thus, bisexual Black and Latino men are at ificantly higher risk for HIV infection and transmission in comparison to both exclusively heterosexual and homosexual men. In order to effectively address the HIV risk and prevention needs of ethnic minority men and their sexual partners, a deeper understanding of the ways in which bisexuality is experienced and expressed is necessitated.

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Since bisexual men have most frequently been categorized with exclusively homosexual men, most research on male bisexuality has focused on homosexuality with scant and questionable extrapolations made to bisexuality. Serious shortcomings and inadequate knowledge exist in regards to bisexual men's individual, social, and sexual lives, as well as subjective experiences of their sexualities.

Introduction

Bisexuality has received notably less scientific and theoretical attention than homosexuality in sexuality research Angelides, Males do not represent two discrete populations, heterosexual and Discrete black man. The world is not divided into sheep and goats. Not all things are black nor all things white. It is a fundamental of human taxonomy that nature rarely deals with discrete. Only the human mind invents and tries to force facts into separated pigeon-holes. The living world is a continuum in each and every one of its aspects. The sooner we learn this concerning human sexual behavior the sooner we shall reach a sound understanding of the realities of sex.

However, an artifact of disease-focused research is that much of the contemporary knowledge related to the sexual behaviors of bisexual men has been constructed in the context of HIV. In fact, we would argue that in many health-related practice and research circles, the use of the term MSM initially created to focus on behavior and not sexual orientation has led to an absence of any recognition of bisexuality in the vast majority of this work and has instead led to a conceptualization of bisexual men as little more than a bridge for HIV transmission between homosexual and heterosexual individuals and communities.

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While this special section explicitly focuses on male bisexuality and sexual risk, we see a great need for non-disease-focused research on bisexuality and its potential positive and negative contributions to physical, mental, and social health. Thoughtful and insightful research on aspects of life other than disease and pathology in samples that are diverse in gender, ethnicity, and social class, as well as sexual orientation and identity, as well as funding for such research will hopefully ensure more accurate theoretical perspectives on bisexuality.

Also, one should realize that terminology is not always used consistently: the same label can refer to different phenomena and vice versa.

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It is important to keep in mind, though, that except for a behavioral description, the term does not mean anything. We do not know how MSM see themselves or what their same-sex behavior means to them. Sometimes MSM is being used to include men who also have sex with women. This is confusing if it is not made explicit.

Again, it is important to keep in mind that the acronym MSMW only refers to behavior: men can have sex with both men and women for a variety of reasons and in a diversity of contexts, while the behavior itself can have divergent meanings for the ones involved.

Behavioral bisexuals should be distinguished from self-identified bisexuals. Even though the concept of self-identified bisexuals suggests a more homogeneous category of people, this is not necessarily the case. While several studies usually remain on a descriptive behavioral level, finding out about meaning and contexts is crucial, in case one wants to reach these groups for prevention. In preparing this special section, we have assembled a diverse collection of research and theoretical perspectives on Black and Latino male bisexualities. The 11 articles collected here do not offer final answers; rather, they are first explorations into a relatively uncharted field.

They present some provisional information about who the men in sexual activity with both men and women are, as well as their potential sexual risk behaviors. They all offer building blocks for future research and suggest directions for culturally appropriate interventions.

In contrast to most current media stereotypes, factors related to the sexual risk, protective behaviors, and disclosure practices are offered in these men's own words. The differences that they identified strongly suggest to them a need for specific HIV prevention interventions for both groups.

Siegel, Schrimshaw, Lekas, and Parsons more specifically looked at MSMW who do not identify as gay and also do not disclose their same-sex involvement to their female partners. In this pilot study, they observed in this ethnically diverse sample that unprotected sex was common, more so with steady partners than with casual partners, regardless of their Discrete black man.

According to Siegel et al. There were no differences in level of protection with casual partners, again indicating the presence of risk of transmission.

Black feminist consciousness for black men and boys

The aim of the next two articles was to get a more in-depth understanding of sexual risk behavior among MSMW. They found, among other things, that unprotected sex without disclosure of HIV status was more prevalent among men who were more exclusively homosexually-identified; they further showed that some correlates of unprotected sex are ethnically specific.

For these men, alcohol and drug use seemed to facilitate the engagement in same-sex sexual activity, as well as unprotected sex. Their findings further suggest that some men in treatment for substance abuse first might have to come to terms with their bisexuality before they can successfully address their addiction. While their study suggests a short-term effect of the intervention, it also shows the difficulty of maintaining long-term behavioral change.

Other articles included in this special section adopted a wider perspective.

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