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Bipolar disorder causes a person to experience intense shifts in moods, sometimes from a manic state to a depressed state, for example.
Abstract: Introduction: When people do mental activity for a long time, they will often see cognitive fatigue, reflected in deteriorated task function and decreased motivation to continue to work to do it. The present study aims to investigate the effect of mental fatigue and workload on sleep quality and reaction time in hospital laboratories staff in Isfahan. Method and material: Eighty personals of four hospitals' laboratories in Isfahan participated in this study.
The end points and their predictors were measured at the beginning and at the end of the shifts. Mental fatigue, sleep quality, reaction time, Mental workload and attention were measured by Flicker perception equipment, Pittsburgh questionnaire, reaction timer equipment, NASA TLX online questionnaire, and CPT program respectively. Paired sample t test and linear regression was applied to the data using SPSS : Sleep quality had highest correlation with reaction time.
Education and attention were ificant predictors of reaction time. Conclusion: Most of the laboratory personals were female who had low sleep quality and high reaction time. Commission error could affect reaction time, by decreasing the commission error reaction time decreased. The reaction time could be also affected by education. Keywords: mental work, personals' sleep, reaction time, hospitals' laboratories, Isfahan.
Palabras clave: bipolar, cuidador, sms, estudio cualitativo. Mental fatigue means that alteration in the psycho-physiological state that people see during and following the course of long time of asking mental activity that needs sustained mental efficiency 1. Mental fatigue is observed as a reduced efficiency for mental works 2. When people work on a mental function for a long time, they will often see mental fatigue, reflected in deteriorated task performance and decrease motivation to continue to work to do it 3 - 5.
An increase in the and kind of errors can generally be seen. An important observation is that mentally fatigued people often say having problem in their attention concentrate and that they are easily distracted, denoting that mental fatigue could have effects on elective attention6.
Sleep is the most important improvement chance to recovery energy and refill psychophysiological resources 7. The antecedent research has demonstrated that a good sleep in night decreased the levels of fatigue and increased quietness in morning 8but some health problem like obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and reduced cognitive performance is related to poor sleep quality 9 - Cognitive performance, like working memory, attention and speed of information processing, play an important role in the function of a lot of tasks; therefore, even interim failure of cognitive and mental function can guidance to earnest outcomes for people, especially when an exact and instant answer is needed Some studies have also showed a wide range of cognitive decrease due to lack of sleep.
People feel sleepy and decrease alertness level when they have Sleep deprivation It may also lead to such cognitive function disorders as decrease ability to focus, decreased ability to learnincreased reaction time and remind new facts, and Faulty motor skills A relationship between cognitive function disorders and sleep disorders have showed by some studies on laboratory setting. Studies on truck drivers, medical student, and pilots have illustrated an increase in the accidents and human mistake resulting from sleep deprivation because of shift work The prevention of earnest errors in medical care has long been of anxiety to health professionals, as well as legislatures.
However, the recent report by the Institute of Medicine IOMhas concentrate attention on the problem, and its result, that each year, more Americans die due to medical mistakes made in hospitals rather than injuries from car accidents 16 The most important target in medicine is to warrant high-quality care. The first amplitude of quality pertains to safety, which means that without any accidental injury and mistake.
The role of clinical laboratories is to swiftly produce dependable data, based upon which clinicians can take the true decisions.
In order to attain efficiency and quality in the laboratory procedure, errors should be known and then decrease to zero, thus achieving a practically achievable and medically admissible standard To the best of our knowledge, no study has concentrate on the impression of mental fatigue, mental workload and sleep quality on cognitive function reaction time and attention of personals of laboratory hospitals, in particular. The aim of this study is addressing this gap in the article by surveying whether mental fatigue, mental workload and sleep quality could decline the cognitive performance and attention.
Learn how treatment and therapy for bipolar disorder can help you manage your symptoms and control mood swings.
Of particular interest to this study was surveying the laboratory personals mental fatigue, mental workload, reaction time, sleep quality and attention in the beginning and in the end of shift work. The participants were 26 male and 54 female laboratory personals working in four hospitals in Isfahan. The deprivation criteria contained use of hypnotic drugs, psychiatric illness, major systemic disease, sleep disorders and unwillingness to take part in study.
The shift schedule was adjusted based on the hospital requirements.
The morning shift begin at am and finished at pm, the afternoon shift started at pm and ended at pm, and the evening shift started at 7. This was a cohort study. At first, the participants completed a testimonial and then completed a history questionnaire asking for their demographic information. To assess the partakers' cognitive function, reaction timer and continues performance test were used.
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was employed to assess the sleep quality. Each measurement device was used twice for each person in shift and three shift were measured Morning, Afternoon, Evening. The control group was the morning shift personals and the encounter groups were the afternoon and evening shift personals. During the cognitive performance testing, the participants were seated in workplace, with one researcher being present in order to supervise the tests. Reaction timer test related to the speed at which the information Bipolar personals processed and the suitable selection.
Reaction timer, used in this study, was the equipment that showed 3 different colors and recorded the reaction time in millisecond.
The participants had 2 second for pressing the key. The equipment had a monitor that showed a of stimuli; of error, of true stimulus and the time of reaction for any stimulus. The model of this equipment was PM-RT We used continuous performance test as a scale of attention, mistake and sustained attention. The test contain of stimuli showing on the monitor.
The appearance time for each stimulus was MS, with a duration of MS between every two stimuli. The of correct answer, omission error, commission error, and the reaction time in MS were note as the dependent variables The laboratory staffs' sleep quality in 3 different shifts was measured with standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. All the staffs completed the questionnaire.
Mental fatigue was measured with Flicker perception equipment.
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This Flicker perception equipment had a low frequency light that looked like a flasher to the participants. In the case of low mental fatigue, the participants saw the light stable due to low frequency. As the mental fatigue increased, so did the frequency of light. The model of this equipment was pm-ss To test of two the independent groups' means, multiple linear regression were conducted to control for the dependent variables.
The mean of the participants' age were The youngest person was 19 years old and the oldest person was Bipolar personals years old. The mean of the working experience was 9. The participants' academic degrees were diploma 6. Table 1 Correlation between reaction time and sleep quality and mental fatigue Reaction time Beginning of shift work Correlation p-value End of shift work Correlation p-value Sleep quality 0. As shown in [Table 2], the of linear regression showed that the evening shift work had the lowest effect on sleep quality and the night shift had the greatest effect on sleep quality.
However, there was not any ificant difference between them.
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The differences between sleep quality and workload, mental fatigue, work history, education and age were not statistically ificant. This could be due to low sample size. Gender was the only predictor that had ificant difference with sleep quality. According to what this model predicts, only gender could have effect on the sleep quality. But based on the prediction of this model, of error, commission error and education could affect the reaction time but decrease it.
Moreover, the obtained from pair sample t test [Table 4] indicated that there was a ificant difference between the Commission error, Response time, Reaction time and mental fatigue in the beginning and the end of the shift work.
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One of the target of our study was to specify the solidarity of sleep quality and mental fatigue between the reaction time in the beginning and at the end of shift work evening and night shift. It showed high sleep quality could decrease the reaction time. At the end of shift work, mental fatigue had more effect on the reaction time. In other words, when mental fatigue increased, so did the amount of reaction time.
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However, there wasn't any ificant difference among them that could be due to low sample size. The degree of correlations was the indication of the fact that the study was on the right track. Some studies have examined the role of permanent cognition in the relationship between work stressors and defective sleep. A cross-sectional study showed that work stressors and permanent cognition have negative relationship with subjective sleep quality 9. The result of this article was in a line with our finding that emphasized the importance of sleep.
The second aim of this study was to determine the variables that had effect on sleep quality. In shift work variable, the night shift had more effect on sleep quality than the evening shift, though P value in none of them was ificant due to low sample size.
In regard to hospital variables, Kashani hospital had the most effect on the sleep quality than the khorshid and Eesabn Maryam hospital.
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However, P value wasn't not ificant due to differences in the of staffs. The only variable that had the greatest effect on sleep quality was gender female. But a study showed that ificant ratio of both men and the women of this carefully screened, noncomplaining sample endorsed PSQI scores demonstrator of sleep disorder, with ificantly more women than men endorsing such high PSQI scores The result of this study was in line with ours suggesting some more 1.
Most of the participants in our study were woman 2. Another aim of this study was to determine the variables that had effect on the reaction time. The first variable that had affected the reaction time, was of error. Meaning that, when the of error decreased, the amount of reaction time increased and the participants for making the right decision need more time.
The second variable was commission error.