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Biopsychosocial characteristics of sex offenders: An analysis of legal proceedings. Estudos de Psicologia Campinasvol. DOI: Data were collected by consulting court cases and recorded on a form prepared by the research group for biopsychosocial characterization.

The statistical treatment of the data involved the non-hierarchical k-means clustering method, with cluster analysis. The revealed three distinct groups; some with certain similarities due to the biological characteristics observed Afro-descendant men over the age of 30 years, without reported organic diseasesas well as psychological and social characteristics men with defined occupation and work, living in urban areas, with aggression to the black victim and in the family context and differences schooling, alcohol abuse and physical or psychological aggression, victim sex and family attachment to the aggressor.

Further studies may refine the preliminary conclusions of these analyses.

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Keywords: Adolescent, Child, Sex offenses. These characteristics may demonstrate that there are patterns in this population that must be understood and studied, particularly in Brazil, where this type of research is still incipient. This Adult seeking sex Campinas inspired further research on patterns and has opened new lines of research in this field.

Despite its importance, this characteristic is not consensual among researchers, as argued by Marshall and Michaud and Proulxsince these individuals are not always excited by the presence or image of or adolescent. Another biological characteristic reported in the studies on sexual offense is age. Research conducted by Titcomb et al. However, it is difficult to reasonably estimate the exact of individuals or the percentage of this population.

These individuals generally condemn the practice of violence, despite identifying themselves with the dominant male role Lima, In addition to these characteristics, others are frequently reported in the literature: the kinship relationship and gender of the victim Miller, ; Titcomb et al. In the research by Costa, Rocha, and Cavalcante and Santos et al. The mean age of the victims was nine years and they almost always suffered multiple sexual abuses. In a study conducted by Titcomb et al. This choice was made due to geopolitical criteria such as the political-administrative system of the municipality, but also because there are judicial districts with a history of violations against the rights of children and adolescents.

The study collected data from court cases involving male and female sexual offenders over the age of 18 years, who had been sentenced for the crime of sexual assault against children and adolescents between and The sample size took into the of cases found in each municipality by the Libra system.

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In Parauapeabas27 court cases were selected out of 73 cases. A total of court cases were analyzed. For the analysis of the sample calculation, the data were stratified, considering the court cases selected from each court of justice.

For the analysis of the court cases, an information bank was organized and constantly updated by the members of the group; then the data were evaluated using cluster analysis and discriminating analysis. The purpose of this analysis was to identify which group had or did not have certain characteristics, thus indicating a difference and similarity among the characteristics of the groups.

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To determine how many clusters had to be created, the literature review and visual inspection of the non-hierarchical dendrogram method were followed. Thus, this procedure allowed to verify the existence of differences between the three groups of individuals in the variables analyzed. Cluster analysis revealed three large groups with different characteristics, consisting of Group 1 G1 with 94 individuals, G2 with 92 individuals and G3 with 64 individuals.

The data revealed the presence of three clusters, based on the criterion of greater or less similarity among the biopsychosocial characteristics found in the population studied. The groups are based on the descriptions of their characteristics. To confirm if the groups were reliable and coherent, the clusters were evaluated using a discriminant analysis with the purpose of showing how well the individuals were correctly grouped into three groups, as shown in Table 1.

The discriminant function of G1 indicated that The discriminant function estimated for G2 allowed to classify correctly Cross-validation indicated that The result was that The idea of group behavior is that similar variables are grouped into each group, as well as the different variables. Therefore, the groups were organized in a way that each member was clustered into the groups.

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Source: the authors. The other variables analyzed, which did not appear in the groups, were discarded in the discriminant analysis because they did not discriminate as well as those chosen, demonstrating that sexual aggression is not explained by a single factor, but rather by a set of indicators statistically and not randomly clustered. This means that the variables were not randomly associated, but associated by similarity with the variables, forming the subgroups of the total population.

In addition to the descriptive analysis of the clusters, a table with the data of the groups was prepared, comparing them with their biopsychosocial characteristics and showing the similarities or differences between the three groups Table 2.

Table 2 Comparative diagram of the characteristics of the three clusters. The showed that the biological characteristics of the groups showed homogeneity, that is, the individuals of the three groups showed some similarity when their biological characteristics were evaluated, since four out of five characteristics investigated were present in these groups. As for the psychological characteristics, the data revealed heterogeneity when the groups were observed together, that is, the characteristics presented some important distinctions, since of the five characteristics analyzed, only one was observed in the three groups denial of aggression.

The discussion of the will be presented first considering the biological, psychological and social that presented similarities between the groups. Then the same will be discussed showing the differences between the three groups. In this first discussion of the data, it is interesting to note that there are similarities in the biopsychosocial characteristics between the three groups. All members of the groups were men, aged over 30 years, and Afro-descendants.

The similarities among the biological characteristics may be related to specific characteristics of the information source from which the data was collected. Thus, society would be divided into two distinct groups of people, on one side the workers and on the other the criminals, usually Afro-descendants.

However, in macrosystemic terms, the justice system still reflects the segregation that the society experiences. In general, cases that reach the justice system tend to involve individuals with low socioeconomic status income, education level and occupation and who generally have less access to socioeconomic and cultural opportunities. Another aspect refers to the data on the predominance of males found in the records of legal proceedings.

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The research of this variable, although necessary, must be problematized. It is unclear why there is such a low of cases involving female aggressors, but it may be due to a lower incidence of these cases or underreporting.

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This aspect still requires further investigation in the Brazilian scenario. In general, these findings are equivalent to the other studies analyzed. In the studies by Pincolini and Hutz ; Shelton et al. In addition to the biological characteristics of gender and age, data on Afro-descendants were identified in the .

The study by Schaaf et al. However, few studies, such as those by Burton and Ginsberg and Wiederman, Manyard, and Fretzhave examined ethnic and racial characteristics among sex offenders. Besides the biological category, another similarity was found in the psychological category. G1 and G2 presented similarities among the variables, such as alcohol abuse and absence of physical aggression during sexual aggression.

Regarding alcohol abuse, as reported in the study by Titcomb et al. In the first group, approximately one third of the research participants who had been instructed on drug abuse did not present a history of alcohol or drug abuse In the second group The denial of aggression was another psychological characteristic that was similar between the three groups G1, G2 and G3that is, all the individuals in the groups denied having committed sexual aggression.

In the discussion of the data on the similarities of the groups in the social category, the revealed the following situation: G1, G2 and G3 are similar when related to the skin color of the victim, occupation, urban residence, sexual aggression committed in a private context, and being on parole.

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The similarity related to the gender of the victim female was observed in G2 and G3, and in G1 the victims were both female and male. Santos et al. The data contradict ideas that rest on the social imaginary that the family environment is a safe place, and that the aggressor does not belong to the private context. Another similarity identified in G1 and G3 is related to the variable marital relationship and presence of children, pointing out that individuals in these groups had spouses and children.

As for G2, this group presented mixed characteristics, that is, individuals with or without spouses and children. In G1 and G2, similar variables were associated with the catholic religion and labor activity, that is, the individuals in this group were working at the time of the assault and sexual aggression occurred on a weekday.

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Thus, perpetrators of sexual aggression are generally working individuals, who have spouses and children, revealing the profile of a typically nuclear or traditional family and heterosexual. In the study by Shelton et al. Still in the study by Shelton et al.

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The also showed differences between the three groups in the analysis of the psychological category. The variable psychological aggression during sexual aggression was different in the three groups. This variable indicates that it must be investigated in depth, since its presence may be related to the severity of the aggression against the victim. Within this scenario, the revealed that individuals in G1 committed and did not commit psychological aggression during sexual aggression; in G2, aggressions occurred without psychological aggression; and in G3, psychological aggression was committed during the sexual assault.

As for the of the social category, four variables presented a distinction in relation to the three groups: the age of the victim, kinship relationship, education level and access to alcoholic beverages: G1 consisted of individuals with elementary education who preferred children with some degree of kinship and had access to alcoholic beverages; G2 consisted of individuals with primary, high school and higher education, the victims were children and adolescents, without family ties and no access to alcoholic beverages; the G3 presented the following characteristics: high school and higher education, preference for adolescent victims, with or without family ties, with or without access to alcoholic beverages.

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As the literature suggests Wurtele et al. However, as Costa et al. Regarding the information available, 7. In general,

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